Free Fatty Acids – FFA
Indicates the condition of the olives at time of crush! Healthy fruit, processed immediately should produce oil with low FFA!
The lower, the better! An oil with a low (FFA) will have a higher smoke point than an oil with a higher FFA.
The IOC requires that this number be below 0.8 in order for an olive oil to be considered Extra Virgin grade.
High FFA values generally indicate that the olives were overripe and lacking the health benefits of an appropriately harvested olive.
Peroxide Value – PV
This number must be equal to or less than 20. This is the primary measurement of the rancidity of a particular extra virgin olive oil. Peroxide value is affected by procedures used in processing and storing of the oil. Peroxide is responsible for color and aroma changes as the oil oxidizes.
(PPP) Pyropheophytin A
A-Tocopherals (Vitamin E)
A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to stay healthy and work the way it should. It is fat-soluble (can dissolve in fats and oils) and is found in seeds, nuts, leafy green vegetables, and vegetable oils. Alpha-tocopherol boosts the immune system and helps keep blood clots from forming. It also helps prevent cell damage caused by free radicals (highly reactive chemicals). Alpha-tocopherol is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer. It is a type of antioxidant.
Squalene is a natural organic compound that is part of our tissues. It is a polyunsaturated hydrocarbon, its molecular structure resembles that of vitamin E. However Squalene contains four additional groups of isoprenoids, which are very potent natural antioxidants.